Airline Passenger Rights

One of the questions I frequently get asked is what to do if a flight is canceled and what are my airline passenger rights?

People want to know what their rights are when it comes to a canceled flight, and how to handle the situation if their flight is canceled.  In the United States and Europe, government regulation establishes airline passenger rights. However, in The United States of America no federal law or regulation specifies what, if any, rights you have when an airline cancels your flight

In America, the Department of Transportation states these key facts relative to Airline Passenger Rights:

  1. In the United States, airlines are not required to compensate passengers when flights are delayed or canceled.  Compensation is required by U.S. law only when certain passengers are “bumped” from a flight that is oversold
  2. If your flight is canceled and you choose to cancel your trip as a result, you are entitled to a refund for the unused transportation – even for non-refundable tickets.
  3. Each airline has its own policies about what it will do for passengers whose flights have been canceled.

So, what does this mean for you the consumer?

If the flight you are on is operating under a United States airline, unless you choose a refund, you are at the mercy of the airline and subject to “their policies.” Otherwise known as “The Contract of Carriage.”

Contract of Carriage Defined:

Binding agreement (evidenced usually by an air waybill, bill of lading, or passenger ticket) which contains conditions of carriage that spell out the obligations and rights of a carrier and a shipper/passenger.

Contract of Carriage Simply Stated:

The agreement between you and the airline covering the legal contract.


Airline Passenger Rights – The 12 Steps to Handle Flight Cancellations

If you have the misfortune of dealing with a canceled flight, follow these 12 steps:

Step 1: Proceed to the airline’s customer service counter at the airport
Do not leave the airport without trying to resolve and re-book unless the airline’s ticket counter is closed. Your chances of getting re-booked are better the quicker you spring into action at the airport.

Step 2: Start documenting and creating a paper trail
Photograph the announcement boards and any documentation the airline gives you. Capture the names of all the staff you deal with, document everything including times. Extremely important should you not get resolution at the airport.

Step 3: Refresh yourself on your legal rights and read the airlines contract of carriage
Know your rights! Remember, United States airlines are governed by the Department of Transportation which defers to the Contract of Carriage bar a couple of phrases. Read the Contract of Carriage and be prepared for what the airline’s contract of carriage states it will do. Ultimately, the Contract of Carriage will govern what you are legally entitled to from this point on. Don’t despair; this does not mean you are doomed.

If you are unable to resolve with the first three steps and have left the airport, proceed to step 4:

Step 4: Research available flights routes
Be proactive! Make sure that before you contact customer service, you have researched all available flight routes. Be prepared to ask for the exact route you want. Airlines often propose flying routes that are illogical requiring you to travel for days to keep you in their network or alliance and limit
costs.

Be prepared to suggest your alternative flight route on any carrier and ask for it!

If there is a flight that is available for a similar amount and you can’t get the airline to book you on it. Consider accepting the refund and buying buy a new flight.  Flying domestically in the states, I have found this is often the quickest route because you can use any airline vs. staying within codeshare, interline, alliances or other airline agreements.

Step 4:  Review airline agreements
Airline agreements are complicated. There are codeshares, interline agreements, partnerships, alliances, reciprocity agreements, and the list goes on. See the section on terminology for a better understanding of the differences. The key here is understanding the alliances that the airline is in and who their partners are. Knowing this will help you determine which routes they will prefer to put you on. It can speed up the process if you suggest a route with a competitor that they have an agreement with.

An essential step because airlines will tell you that they cannot re-book you on a competitor airline. This is not true. They can if they want to or more specifically if you can persuade them to.

Do your research! I have included a table for easy reference below. Being able to articulate that you understand the airlines’ agreements will give you a tad more leverage. And, yes – airlines’ can put you on any airline. It just costs them more!

Step 5: Call customer service
Given that you could not get rebooked at the customer service counter within the airport you have no choice but to call the airlines’ customer service. Explain to the representative the situation. If they can rebook you on an acceptable flight, great! If not, ask to speak to the manager. Be ready to ask to be re-booked on a flight that makes sense. Often, they will want to refund you! Don’t accept this unless the refund will cover the cost of you buying a new ticket.

  • Be firm, be polite but stand your ground and ask for them to rebook you on a sensible route
  • Suggest the alternative flight route you want
  • Appeal to them emotionally with open-ended questions like:
    • How would you feel if this was happening to you?
    • How would you want to be treated if this happened to you?
    • If this was your company, and you had the magic wand what would you do?
    • What type of a solution do you think would be in our best interest vs. the airlines?
  • Do not lose your cool! If you do, they will hang up on you, and you’ll have to call back. Not to mention that you will now be on the naughty list and they will be less inclined to help you. Getting angry with the airline while in crisis mode will not help, it will give you adverse effects!

Step 6: Launch an instant cyber campaign 
There is nothing any company hates more than dealing with negative press. Even though they will reply with generic responses like “Please contact customer service” or “PM us.” Raising the issue on social media gets attention and creates terrible publicity for the airline. And, the more of you that participate, the better – the problem will go viral:

  • Tweet, tweet and re-tweet – cite and tag the airline along with flight number
  • Tag into, and comment on the other tweets that are out there – you won’t be alone
  • Post on Facebook – again cite and tag the airline along with flight number
  • Post on Instagram – again quote and tag the airline along with flight number

Typically, by this point, you should get a resolution assuming you keep your cool. If you don’t, it is time to get a new ticket or be prepared to wait!

If you have travel insurance, now would be a good time to use it! Accept the refund and buy a new ticket.  If there is a difference in price, your insurance will kick in.


Even if you wind up here, you still have courses of action. They won’t result in an immediate resolution, but they will get you heard postflight:

Step 7: File a complaint with the airline
Regardless of what you are legally entitled to. If you end up stuck for more than a few hours, then you should complain vigorously. Therefore, your documentation in step 3 is critical. It’s unusual for an airline to ignore you completely. If they do or if they refuse to do anything to compensate you for your troubles, repeat step 6. At a minimum, you should be looking for points. Don’t fall for airline credit vouchers – they come with a slew of legal terminology making them very difficult to use.

Step 8: File a complaint with the passenger rights governing body for your flight
For step 8, let’s assume the flight originated from Europe or America. Otherwise, your options for filing a complaint may be limited.

*Note, the passenger rights in Europe are very different. See my section on Europe here.

Step 9: Get your credit card involved
Most of us book flights on a credit card today. Immediately dispute the charge with your credit card company. You will need all your documentation and if it’s an American flight your chances will be limited unless you can prove extenuating circumstances.

Step 10: Use a third-party service that specializes in airline disputes
There are a few of these types of services popping up. These third-party services act very aggressively on your behalf for a percent of the recovery:

  • Airhelp – I have personally used this service. Very easy to use but predominately supports EU claims. I suspect that is due to the lack of passenger rights in the US and the contracts of carriage
  • Air-Collect– I have not used this service yet, but I’ve read great reviews. It’s the same concept as Airhelp

Step 11: Launch a campaign to spread the word
Repeat step 6, re-engage and share on social media, follow up on your original posts and tweets and state still no resolution:

Step 12: Consider small claims court
Consider taking the airline to small claims court. It’s highly unlikely they will show up in court to defend themselves, and you will likely walk away with compensation. These types of cases are settled quickly!

I’ve used this approach many times! I’ve never had to go past step 7 yet but I would if needed. If you want to read a humorous account of what happened to me in January, read my article: Stranded in New Zealand – Flight Cancellation Drama. I was able to get American Airlines to re-book us on flights with Virgin Australia who they have no agreement with! Home from New Zealand! And, flight AA82 got lots of news coverage because most people were stranded!

Or if you want a laugh, check out what I think the perfect flight looks like!


Airline Passenger Rights – The Technical Mumbo Jumbo ­

United States Airlines

As of January 2019, there are ten primary air and three regionals, a total of 13 carriers in the United States excluding freight, commuter, and charters.  Within this article I will only cover the Mainline Passengers Airlines:

10 Mainline Passenger Airlines

Alaska AirlinesAllegiant AirAmerican AirlinesDelta Air LinesFrontier Airlines
Hawaiian AirlinesJetBlueSouthwest AirlinesSpirit AirlinesUnited Airlines

3 Regional Passenger Airlines

Envoy AirRepublic AirlinesSkyWest Airlines

United States Airlines Cancellation Statistics

According to the Bureau of Transportation Statistic in 2018: 103,578 flights out of 6,033,426 or 1.72% flights were canceled.  It might not seem like a lot, but as a frequent flier, this is to me. For every 100 flights I take, I should expect two to be canceled. Guess what; the numbers do not lie! 2018 started for me with a canceled flight from New Zealand on American Airlines – one of a few to follow in 2018.

United States Airline Deregulation

The Airline Deregulation Act is a 1978 United States federal law that deregulated the airline industry in the United States, removing U.S. federal government control over such areas as fares, routes and market entry of new airlines, introducing a free market in the commercial airline industry and leading to a great increase in the number of flights, a decrease in fares, and an increase in the number of passengers and miles flown. The Civil Aeronautics Board’s powers of regulation were phased out, but the Act did not diminish the regulatory powers of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) over all aspects of aviation safety.

In laments terms, this is what gave airlines the power to create Contracts of Carriage that are self-created legalities written to limit the airlines’ liability!

Before the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, there was a “Rule 240”  that mandated carriers with delayed or canceled flights to transfer travelers to another carrier if the second one could get them to their final destination more quickly than the original airline. The use of Rue 240 was merely the concept of one carrier endorsing a ticket to another carrier. Or, re-booking you on a new flight at the airline’s expense. An expensive arrangement. The carrier accepting the reservation would charge the most expensive ticket available to the carrier with the delay or cancellation.

Once deregulation came Rule 240 went away – it no longer exists. It is obsolete!  Now, before the trolls come and argue that you can ask to be 240’ ed, yes, you absolutely can ask, but there is no federal law requiring it!

United States Airlines Contracts of Carriage – As of January 2019

*Note, in most cases airlines are partners and have codeshare agreements:

Airline Link to Contract:Contract of Carriage States:Partners With:Code Share Agreements With:Alliance:
Alaska AirlinesC. Carrier Options for Schedule Irregularity. In the event Alaska cancels or fails to operate any flight according to Alaska's published schedule, or changes the schedule of any flight, Alaska will, at the request of a Passenger with a confirmed reservation and Ticket for such flight, take one of the following actions:
1. For Local Passengers:
a. Transport Passenger to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover point on another Alaska flight on which space is available in the same or higher class of service than reflected on the Passenger's Ticket at no additional charge; or
b. If acceptable to the Passenger, provide transportation to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover point on another Carrier's flight in the same or higher class of service than reflected on the Passenger's Ticket at no additional charge; or
c. Refund the unused portion of the Passenger's Ticket in accordance with Rule 17 (Involuntary Refunds).
2. For Transit Passengers Connecting From an Alaska Flight:
a. Transport Passenger to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover point on another Alaska flight on which space is available in the same or higher class of service than reflected on the Passenger's Ticket at no additional charge; or
b. If acceptable to the Passenger, provide transportation to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover point on another Carrier's flight in the same or higher class of service than reflected on the Passenger Ticket at no additional charge; or
c. If on the outbound leg, return Passenger to city of origin and refund the entire Ticket in the original form of payment. If on the return leg, refund unused portions of the Ticket in accordance with Rule 17.
3. For Transit Passengers Connecting from Another Carrier's Flight:
a. Transport Passenger to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover point on another Alaska flight on which space is available in the same or higher class of service than reflected on the Passenger's Ticket at no additional charge; or
b. If acceptable to the Passenger, provide transportation to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover point on another Carrier's flight in the same or higher class of service than reflected on the Passenger Ticket at no additional charge; or
c. If on the outbound leg, return Passenger to city of origin and refund the entire Ticket in the original form of payment. If on the return leg, refund unused portions of the Ticket in accordance with Rule 17.
4. Alaska may, at its option and if acceptable to the Passenger, transport a Passenger affected by a Schedule Irregularity to his/her destination or next ticketed Stopover (or its co-terminal point specified in Rule 17) via surface transportation, or a combination of surface transportation, Alaska flights and other Carriers' flights, at no additional charge.
5. Except to the extent provided in this Rule and subject to the Warsaw Convention and/or Montreal Convention, where applicable, Alaska shall not be liable for any Schedule Irregularity.
Partners With:
Aer Lingus
American Airline
British Airways
Cathay Pacific
Condor
Emirates
Fiji Airways
Finnair
Hainan Airlines
Icelandair
Japan Airlines
Korean Air
LATAM Airlines
PenAir
Qantas
Ravn Alaska
Singapore Airlines
Same as PartnersNone
Allegiant Air85. Failure to Operate as Scheduled
This article covers:
Cancelled Flights (both voluntarily changed by the carrier and for reasons beyond the carrier’s control)
Late or Irregular Operations (both voluntarily changed by the carrier and for reasons beyond the carrier’s control)
Schedule Changes
Cancel/Delay reasons beyond the carrier’s control include, but are not limited to, acts of God, governmental actions, fire, weather, mechanical difficulties, Air Traffic Control, strikes or labor disputes, or inability to obtain fuel for the flight in question.
Carrier shall use its best efforts to notify all affected passengers promptly of planned schedule changes and service withdrawals.
If Carrier delays, cancels, or fails to operate any flight according to Carrier's published schedule, provided in the case of delay that the delay is significant, Carrier will, at the request of a passenger confirmed on an affected flight:
transport the passenger on another of Allegiant’s flights on which space is available at no additional charge; or
refund the unused portion of the passenger's fare in accordance with Article 90 below; or
in the case of a schedule change made voluntarily by Carrier, and provided the schedule change is significant, refund the unused portion of the passenger’s fare in accordance with Article 90 below.
Carrier shall not be liable for any consequential damages or incidental costs incurred by the passengers such as, but not limited to, loss of wages/income/salaries/emotional distress that arise from the failure or delay in operating any flight.
Carrier will attempt to transport passengers and their baggage promptly and as scheduled. Flight schedules, however, are subject to change without notice, and the times shown in or on Carrier's published schedules and advertising are not guaranteed. At times, without prior notice to passengers, Carrier may need to substitute other aircraft, airlines or means of transportation and may change, add, or omit intermediate or connecting stops. Carrier cannot guarantee that passengers will make connections to other flights of its own or those of other airlines. In the event of flight schedule changes, Carrier will attempt to notify affected passengers as soon as possible at the airport or en route.
If a flight is unable to land at the destination airport and is diverted to another airport, the carriage by air shall, unless the aircraft continues to the original destination, be deemed to be completed when the aircraft arrives at the diversion airport. Carrier may, however, arrange or designate alternative transportation, whether by Carrier’s own service or by other means of transportation specified by Carrier (which may include ground transportation) to transport passengers to the original destination without additional cost. Exceptions may include situations where alternative transportation is prevented by safety concerns. When alternative transportation to the original destination is provided by or at the direction of Carrier, any arrangements made by one or more passengers on their own will not be paid for or reimbursed by Carrier and are at the passengers’ own risk.
NoneNoneNone
American AirlinesDelays, cancellations and diversions
Rebooking your delayed/canceled flight
When your flight is canceled or a delay will cause you to miss your connection, we'll rebook you on the next flight with available seats. If you decide not to fly because your flight was delayed or canceled, we'll refund the remaining ticket value and any optional fees.
Delays caused by us
If the delay is our fault or you're diverted to another city, and we don't board before 11:59 p.m. local time on your scheduled arrival day, we'll arrange an overnight stay or cover the cost of an approved hotel, if available.
Delays beyond our control (like weather)
If the delay is beyond our control, you're responsible to pay for your hotel, meals and other expenses. An American Airlines agent may be able to help you find a hotel.

FYI: American Airlines recently announced that they will no longer book passengers without status on competitor airlines. At the same time, they renewed a prior reciprocity agreement with Delta to re-book passengers.
Partners With:
Air Tahiti Nui
Alaska Airlines
Alaska Airlines/Horizon Air
British Airways
Cape Air
Cathay Pacific
Etihad Airways
Fiji Airways
Finnair
Gulf Air
Hawaiian Airlines
Iberia
Interjet
Japan Airlines
Jet Airways
LATAM Airlines
Malaysia Airlines
Qantas
Codeshare Airlines:
Air Tahiti Nui
Alaska Airlines
Alaska Airlines/Horizon Air
British Airways
Cape Air
Cathay Pacific
Etihad Airways
Fiji Airways
Finnair
Gulf Air
Hawaiian Airlines
Iberia
Interjet
Japan Airlines
Jet Airways
LATAM Airlines
Malaysia Airlines
Qantas
Qantas Airways
Qatar Airways
Royal Jordanian Airlines
S7 Airlines
Seaborne Airlines
SriLa
SriLankan Airlines
WestJet
Oneworld
Delta Airlines Domestic

Delta Airlines International


Delta Airlines Domestic
RULE 19: FLIGHT DELAYS/CANCELLATIONS A. Delta’s Liability in the Event of Schedule Changes, Delays and Flight Cancellations If there is a flight cancellation, diversion, delay of greater than 90 minutes, or that will cause a passenger to miss connections, Delta will (at passenger’s request) cancel the remaining ticket and refund the unused portion of the ticket and unused ancillary fees in the original form of payment in accordance with Rule 22. If the passenger does not request cancellation and refund of the remaining portion of the ticket, Delta will transport the passenger to the destination on Delta’s next flight on which seats are available in the class of service originally purchased. At Delta’s sole discretion and if acceptable to the passenger, Delta may arrange for the passenger to travel on another Carrier or via ground transportation. If acceptable to the passenger, Delta may provide transportation in a lower class of service, in which case the passenger may be entitled to a partial refund. If space on the next available flight is available only in a higher class of service than purchased, Delta will transport the passenger on the flight, although Delta reserves the right to upgrade other passengers on the flight according to its upgrade priority policy to make space in the class of service originally purchased. Delta will not be liable under any circumstances for any special, incidental or consequential damages arising from the foregoing. B. Delta’s Liability for Additional Amenities in the Event of Schedule Changes, Delays and Flight Cancellations Except as provided above, Delta shall have no liability if the flight cancellation, diversion or delay was due to force majeure. As used in this rule, “force majeure” means actual, threatened or reported: (1) Weather conditions or acts of God; (2) Riots, civil unrest, embargoes, war, hostilities, or unsettled international conditions; (3) Strikes, work stoppages, slowdowns, lockout, or any other labor-related dispute; (4) Government regulation, demand, directive or requirement; (5) Shortages of labor, fuel, or facilities; or (6) Any other condition beyond Delta’s control or any fact not reasonably foreseen by Delta. However, when a passenger’s travel is interrupted for more than 4 hours after the scheduled departure time as a result of flight cancellation or delay on the date of travel other than from force majeure, Delta will provide the passenger with the following additional amenities during the delay: (a) Hotels If overnight accommodations are available at Delta contracted facilities, Delta will provide the passenger with a voucher for one night’s lodging when the delay is during the period of 10:00 pm to 6:00 am. Delta will provide free public ground transportation to the hotel if the hotel does not offer such service. If accommodations are not available, Delta will provide the passenger with a voucher that may be applied to future travel on Delta equal in value to the contracted hotel rate, up to $100 USD. (b) Ground Transportation In lieu of lodging or other amenities, Delta will furnish ground transportation to the destination airport if a passenger’s flight is diverted to an alternative airport and if the destination on the ticket and the diverted airport destination are within the following city Delta Domestic General Rules Tariff Page 18 of 25 groups: San Francisco, CA (SFO)/ Oakland, CA (OAK)/ San Jose, CA (SJC) Los Angeles, CA (LAX)/ Long Beach, CA (LGB)/ Ontario, CA (ONT)/ Santa Ana, CA (SNA) Denver, CO (DEN)/ Colorado Springs (COS) O’Hare – Chicago, IL (ORD)/ Midway – Chicago, IL (MDW) Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX (DFW)/ Dallas, TX Love Field (DAL) Bush Intercontinental – Houston, TX (IAH)/ Hobby – Houston, TX (HOU) Fort Lauderdale, FL (FLL)/ Miami, FL (MIA)/ West Palm Beach, FL (PBI) Baltimore, MD (BWI)/ National – Washington, DC (DCA)/ Dulles – Washington, DC (IAD) Newark, NJ (EWR)/ LaGuardia – New York, NY (LGA)/ John F. Kennedy – New York, NY (JFK) Orlando, FL (MCO)/ Tampa, FL (TPA)/ Daytona Beach, FL (DAB)/ Melbourne, FL (MLB)/Sarasota Bradenton, FL (SRQ) (c) Additional Amenities Delta will provide such additional or alternative amenities as are necessary to maintain the safety and/or welfare of customers with special needs such as unaccompanied children and customers with disabilities. Such amenities will be furnished consistent with special needs and/or circumstances. C. Extended Tarmac Delays – Codeshare Services In the event of extended tarmac delays on flights operated by a Delta codeshare partner, the contingency plan for lengthy tarmac delays of the operating Carrier will apply.

Delta Airlines International
A. Delta’s Liability in the Event of Schedule Changes, Delays and Flight Cancellations
RULE 20: FLIGHT DELAYS/CANCELLATIONS
A. Delta’s Liability in the Event of Schedule Changes, Delays and Flight Cancellations
If there is a flight cancellation, diversion, delay of greater than 90 minutes, or that will cause a passenger to miss connections, Delta will (at passenger’s request) cancel the remaining ticket and refund the unused portion of the ticket and unused ancillary fees in the original form of payment in accordance with Rule 22. If the passenger does not request cancellation and refund of the remaining portion of the ticket, Delta will transport the passenger to the destination on Delta’s next flight on which seats are available in the class of service originally purchased. At Delta’s sole discretion and if acceptable to the passenger, Delta may arrange for the passenger to travel on another Carrier or via ground transportation. If acceptable to the passenger, Delta may provide transportation in a lower class of service, in which case the passenger may be entitled to a partial refund. If space on the next available flight is available only in a higher class of service than purchased, Delta will transport the passenger on the flight, although Delta reserves the right to upgrade other passengers on the flight according to its upgrade priority policy to make space in the class of service originally purchased. Delta will not be liable under any circumstances for any special, incidental or consequential damages arising from the foregoing.
B. Delta’s Liability for Additional Amenities in the Event of Schedule Changes, Delays and Flight Cancellations
Except as provided above, Delta shall have no liability if the flight cancellation, diversion or delay was due to force majeure. As used in this rule, “force majeure” means actual, threatened or reported:
(1) Weather conditions or acts of God;
(2) Riots, civil unrest, embargoes, war, hostilities, or unsettled international conditions;
(3) Strikes, work stoppages, slowdowns, lockout, or any other labor-related dispute;
(4) Government regulation, demand, directive or requirement;
(5) Shortages of labor, fuel, or facilities; or
(6) Any other condition beyond Delta’s control or any fact not reasonably foreseen by Delta.

However, when a passenger’s travel is interrupted for more than 4 hours after the scheduled departure time as a result of flight cancellation or delay on the date of travel other than from force majeure, Delta will provide the passenger with the following additional amenities during the delay:

(a) Hotels
If overnight accommodations are available at Delta contracted facilities, Delta will provide the passenger with a voucher for one night’s lodging when the delay is during the period of 10:00 pm to 6:00 am. Delta will provide free public ground transportation to the hotel if the hotel does not offer such service. If accommodations are not available, Delta will provide the passenger with a voucher that may be applied to future travel on Delta equal in value to the contracted hotel rate, up to $100 USD.
(b) Ground Transportation
In lieu of lodging or other amenities, Delta may furnish ground transportation to the destination airport if a passenger’s flight is diverted to an alternative airport and if the destination on the ticket and the diverted airport destination are within the following city groups:
San Francisco, CA (SFO)/ Oakland, CA (OAK)/ San Jose, CA (SJC)
Los Angeles, CA (LAX)/ Long Beach, CA (LGB)/ Ontario, CA (ONT)/ Santa Ana, CA (SNA)
Denver, CO (DEN)/ Colorado Springs (COS)
O’Hare – Chicago, IL (ORD)/ Midway – Chicago, IL (MDW)
Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX (DFW)/ Dallas, TX Love Field (DAL)
Bush Intercontinental – Houston, TX (IAH)/ Hobby – Houston, TX (HOU)
Fort Lauderdale, FL (FLL)/ Miami, FL (MIA)/ West Palm Beach, FL (PBI)
Baltimore, MD (BWI)/ National – Washington, DC (DCA)/ Dulles – Washington, DC (IAD)
Newark, NJ (EWR)/ LaGuardia – New York, NY (LGA)/ John F. Kennedy – New York, NY (JFK)
Orlando, FL (MCO)/ Tampa, FL (TPA)/ Daytona Beach, FL (DAB)/ Melbourne, FL (MLB)/Sarasota Bradenton, FL (SRQ)
(c) Additional Amenities
Delta will provide such additional or alternative amenities as are necessary to maintain the safety and/or welfare of customers with special needs such as unaccompanied children and customers with disabilities. Such amenities will be furnished consistent with special needs and/or circumstances.
American Airlines recently renewed a prior reciprocity agreement with Delta to re-book passengers.

Airline Partners:
Air Europa
Aeroflot
Aerolíneas Argentina
AeroMexico
Air France
Alitalia
China Airlines
China Eastern
China Southern
Czech Airlines
Garuda Indonesia
GOL Airlines
Hawaiian Airlines
Jet Airways
Kenya Airways
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Korean Air
Middle East Airlines
Saudi Airlines
TAROM
Vietnam Airline
Virgin Atlantic
Virgin Australia
WestJet
Xiamen Air
Codeshare Airlines:
Aeroflot
Aerolineas Argentinas
AeroMexico
Air Europa
Air France
Alitalia
China Airlines
China Eastern
China Southern
Czech Airlines
GOL Airlines
Hawaiian Airlines
Jet Airways
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Korean Air
Seaborne Airlines
Transavia
Virgin Atlantic
Virgin Australia
WestJet
Skyteam
Frontier Airlines18. Failure to Operate on Schedule or Failure to Carry
A. Liability Limited - Except to the extent provided in this rule, Frontier is not liable for failure to operate any flight, failure to operate a flight according to its schedule, or for changing the schedule or type of equipment used on any flight, with or without notice to the passenger. B. Force Majeure - In the occurrence of a force majeure event, Frontier may cancel, divert, or delay any flight without liability except to provide a refund for the unused portion of the ticket. C. Delay, Misconnection, or Cancellation - In the event (i) a passenger's flight is cancelled, (ii) a passenger is denied boarding because an aircraft with lesser capacity is substituted, (iii) a passenger misses a connecting Frontier flight due to a delay or cancellation of a Frontier flight (but not flights of other carriers), (iv) a passenger is delivered to a different destination because of the omission of a scheduled stop to which the passenger held a ticket, to the extent possible, Frontier will provide transportation on its own flights at no additional charge to the passenger’s original destination or equivalent destination as provided herein. Frontier will have no obligation to provide transportation on another carrier. If Frontier cannot provide the foregoing transportation, Frontier shall, if requested, provide a refund for the unused portion of the passenger's ticket in lieu of the transportation under the foregoing. The foregoing shall be the limit of Frontier's liability for the matters covered by this provision. D. For purposes of involuntary reroute, the following groups of cities are the same point. If Frontier is able to provide transportation to one of the specified alternative cities, Frontier has met its obligation for transport to the final destination. • Chicago-O’Hare (ORD) /Milwaukee (MKE) • Ft. Lauderdale (FLL) /West Palm Beach (PBI) / Miami (MIA) • Los Angeles (LAX) /Orange County (SNA) • Madison (MSN)/Milwaukee (MKE) • New York La Guardia (LGA) /Trenton (TTN) /Philadelphia (PHL) • Orange County (SNA) /San Diego (SAN) • Orlando (MCO) /St. Augustine (UST) • Orlando (MCO) /Tampa (TPA) • Washington Dulles (IAD) /Washington National (DCA) E. Schedule Change Prior to Day of Travel -- When a passenger’s itinerary is changed because of a modification in Frontier’s schedule, arrangements will be made to: 1) Transport the passenger over its own route system to the destination; or 2) In the event the schedule modification is significant, at Frontier's discretion, it may refund the cost of the unused portion of the ticket. Rev 69 10/31/18 Pg. 21 of 24 Denied Boarding Compensation C ONTRACT O F C ARRIAGE F. Extended Onboard Ground Delays -- In accordance with FAA regulations, Frontier maintains and complies with a separate Contingency Plan for Lengthy Tarmac Delays. Frontier's Contingency Plan for Lengthy Tarmac Delays may be found on Frontier's website at https://az832049.vo.msecnd.net/media/1567/f9-contingency-plan-for-extended-tarmac-delays-2015.pdf. Frontier's Contingency Plan for Lengthy Tarmac Delays is subject to change without notice and is not part of this Contract of Carriage.
None
None

None
Hawaiian Airlines Domestic

Hawaiian Airlines International
Hawaiian Airlines Domestic
RULE 21: FLIGHT DELAYS, CHANGES, CANCELLATIONS, AND AIRCRAFT CHANGES A. GENERAL RULES. 1. Applicability. The provisions of this Rule 21, other than for Section (G) below, applies to you only if you have a Ticket and a confirmed reserved space on one of our flights and there is a flight delay, flight change, flight diversion, or flight cancellation. If you are a standby guest, your rights are governed by Section (G) of this Rule 21. 2. Notification. We will promptly notify you of any delay, change, diversion, or cancellation of your confirmed reserved space as soon as reasonably possible after it is confirmed. However, we not liable for any misstatements or other errors or omissions in connection with providing that information. 3. Schedules are Subject to Change Without Notice. Any times shown on Tickets, timetables, published schedules or elsewhere, as well as any aircraft type and similar details reflected on any Tickets or in any of our flight schedules are not guaranteed and are not a part of this contract. We may (i) substitute alternate carriers or aircraft, (ii) delay or cancel flights, and (iii) alter or omit stopping places or connections shown on the Ticket at any time. 4. Liability. Except to the extent provided in this Rule 21, we are not liable for failing to operate any flight according to schedule, or for any change in flight schedule, with or without notice to you. B. DEFINITIONS. For this Rule 21, the following terms have the meaning indicated below: 1. Connecting Carrier(s) means the carrier or combination of carriers on whose flight(s) you originally held, or hold confirmed reserved space from a Connecting Point to a destination, next stopover or Connecting Point. 2. Connecting Point means a point to which on one Ticket you hold or held confirmed reserved space on one carrier, and out of which you hold or held confirmed reserved space on the same or another carrier. All airports through which a city is served by any carrier will be deemed to be a single Connecting Point when the receiving carrier has confirmed reservations from the delivering carrier. 3. Delivering Carrier means the carrier on whose flight you hold or held confirmed reserved space to a Connecting Point. 4. Force Majeure Event means any of the following situations: a. Any condition beyond our control including, but not limited to meteorological or geological conditions, acts of God, riots, terrorist activities, civil commotions, embargoes, wars, hostilities, disturbances, or unsettled international conditions, either actual, anticipated, threatened, or reported, or any delay, demand, circumstances, or requirement due directly or indirectly to such condition. b. Any strike, work stoppage, slowdown, lockout, or any other labor-related dispute involving or affecting Hawaiian’s services. c. Any Government Law, demand, or requirement. d. Any shortage of labor, fuel, or facilities of Hawaiian or others. e. Damage to our Aircraft or equipment caused by another party. f. Any emergency requiring immediate care or protection for a person or property. g. Any event not reasonably foreseen, anticipated, or predicted by Hawaiian. 5. Misconnection occurs at a Connecting Point when as part of a single Ticket for confirmed reserved space, the Delivering Carrier was unable to deliver you to the Connecting Point in time to connect with the Connecting Carrier. NOTE: The same rules apply at any subsequent point(s) of Misconnection as apply at the point of the original Misconnection. 6. Irregular Operations means any of the following irregularities: a. Delay in scheduled departure or arrival of a carrier’s flight resulting in a Misconnection; b. Flight or service cancellation, omission of a scheduled stop, or any other delay or interruption in the scheduled operation of a carrier’s flight; c. Substitution of an aircraft type that provides a different class of service; d. Schedule changes which result in your reroute at the departure time of the original flight; or e. Cancellation of a reservation pursuant to Rule 4: Cancellation of Reservations. C. IRREGULAR OPERATIONS. The following rules apply to any Irregular Operation: 1. Liability. Except as provided by law, we are not liable for any Irregular Operations. 2. Delay, Misconnection or Cancellation. When your Ticket is affected by any delay, Misconnection or cancellation caused by Hawaiian, we will take one the following actions: a. we will transport you, subject to availability and without stopover, to your destination, next stopover point, or transfer point shown on our portion of your Ticket, in the same class of service, at no additional cost to you; b. in our sole discretion, we may arrange for you to travel on another carrier; or c. we will refund you in accordance with Rule 24: Refunds. NOTE: In the event you miss a flight on a Connecting Carrier on which space is reserved because the Delivering Carrier did not operate its flight as scheduled due to Irregular Operations or cancellation of its flight, the Delivering Carrier is responsible to arrange for your carriage or to make a refund. D. FORCE MAJEURE EVENT. In the event of a Force Majeure Event, we may cancel, terminate, divert, postpone, or delay any flight, right of carriage, or reservations (whether or not confirmed) without any prior notice to you and determine if any departure or landing should be made, without any liability to Hawaiian. We may re-accommodate you on another available Hawaiian flight or on another carrier or combination of carriers or may refund any unused portions of your Ticket in the form of a travel certificate. E. AMENITIES AND SERVICES FOR DELAYED GUESTS. Subject to the exceptions listed in Section (E)(5) below of this Rule 21, we will provide certain amenities to you as follows in the in the event of a lengthy delay caused by us: 1. Hotel Rooms. If (i) the delay is expected to exceed 4 hours and extend into the period 10:00 pm through 6:00 am, and (ii) no scheduled alternate transportation is available to your destination or stopover point, we will provide one-night’s lodging at an accommodation we select, provided, however, that we will not provide lodging for you if you reside in the city where the delay occurs. 2. Meals. We will provide you with one meal voucher if the delay will extend beyond four (4) hours. No alcoholic beverages will be provided to any guests. 3. Ground Transportation. When lodging is provided to you in accordance with Section (E)(1) above of this Rule 21 and ground transportation is not furnished by the hotel, then, if available, we will provide ground transportation to the place of lodging or reimburse you for reasonable transportation expenses when accompanied by a receipt. Where ground transportation has been offered but not accepted by you for whatever reason, we are not liable to reimburse you for expenses relating to alternative ground transportation secured by you. 4. Alternatively. We may provide you a with a travel credit in lieu of any of the above. Your acceptance of a travel credit indicates your waiver of any of the above amenities. Travel credit (i) will be valid for travel only on Hawaiian within 365 days of the date of issue, (ii) will apply only to online transportation via Hawaiian, (iii) may not be endorsed to or accepted by any other carrier, and (iv) is not refundable, nor saleable, transferable, or assignable by you. 5. Exceptions. a. Force Majeure Event or Weather. The provision of the above amenities does not apply when a flight is delayed because of a Force Majeure Event or because of weather conditions, unless: i. You are deplaned by us at a point other than your Connecting Point, destination, or point of origin; ii. Your onward transportation on us is delayed or cancelled at a Connecting Point intermediate to your destination; or iii. In our sole discretion, we believe that special circumstances require the provision of such amenities (e.g. for unaccompanied children, elderly persons, invalids, and incapacitated and/or ill guests, and qualified individuals with a disability, to maintain the safety, health and welfare of such guests). b. You Accept the Delay Risk. We will not provide any of the above amenities, when a Hawaiian flight is delayed, cancelled, or diverted in a situation where you elected to fly after being informed prior to boarding that environmental conditions at the airport of destination will be such that, at the time of arrival of your flight, the airport may be closed, or that weather conditions may cause your flight to be diverted. If (i) you hold a confirmed reserved space and (ii) while at the airport, and after being informed of the above risk, you elect not to travel, we will provide you ground transportation from the airport, back to your residence or hotel only. No other amenities will be provided. NOTE: If you are at a Connecting Point and Hawaiian is the Connecting Carrier, we will provide you with the above amenities, whether (i) you elect to remain at the Connecting Point or (ii) you elect to travel and are landed at a point other than your final destination or stopover point.

Hawaiian Airlines International
Rule 85: Schedules, Delays, and Cancellation of Flights
Cancellations
Carrier undertakes to use its best efforts to carry the passenger and baggage with reasonable dispatch, but no particular time is fixed for the commencement or completion of carriage. Subject thereto carrier may, without notice, substitute alternate carriers or aircraft and may alter or omit the stopping places shown on the face of the ticket in case of necessity.
Carrier may, without notice, cancel, terminate, divert, postpone, or delay any flight or the further right of carriage or reservation of traffic accommodations and determine if any departure or landing should be made, without any liability except to refund in accordance with its tariffs the fare and baggage charges for any unused portion of the ticket, when it would be advisable to do so:
Because of any fact beyond its control (including, but without limitation, meteorological conditions, acts of god, force majeure, strikes, riots, civil commotions, embargoes, wars, hostilities, disturbances or unsettled international conditions), actual, threatened or reported or because of any delay, demand, condition, circumstances or requirement due, directly or indirectly, to such fact;
Because of any fact not reasonably to be foreseen, anticipated, or predicted;
Because of any government regulation, demand, or requirement; or
Because of shortage of labor, fuel, or facilities or labor difficulties of carrier or others.
Carrier may cancel the right or further right of carriage of the passenger and his baggage upon refusal of the passenger, after demand by carrier, to pay the fare or portion thereof so demanded, or to pay any charge so demanded and assessable with respect to the baggage of the passenger, without being subject to any liability therefore except to refund, in accordance herewith, the unused portion of the fare and baggage charge(s) previously paid, if any.
Notwithstanding the provisions of this rule, carrier will not accept for any purposes under this rule passenger tickets or related transportation documents issued by any carrier which is in substantial default of it interline obligations or which voluntarily or involuntarily has become the subject of bankruptcy proceedings (the "defaulting carrier").

Exception: notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, tickets issued by the defaulting carrier will be accepted solely for transportation over the lines of carrier provided such tickets were issued by such defaulting carrier in its capacity as agent for carrier and specified transportation via carrier. When tickets are accepted, no adjustments in fare will be made which would require carrier to refund money to the passenger.

Airline Partners:
China Airlines
Korean Air
Japan Airlines
JetBlue
Virgin Atlantic
Virgin Australia
Codeshare Airlines:
Air China
China Airlines
Japan Airlines
JetBlue Airways
Korean Air
None
JetBlue Airways25. Failure to Operate as Scheduled A. Whenever Carrier cancels or otherwise fails to operate any scheduled flight, Carrier will, at the request of the Passenger, either (i) transport the Passenger on another of Carrier’s flights on which space is available in the same class of service at no additional charge, or (ii) provide Passenger with a full refund in accordance with Section 26. Except as may be provided in Section 37, Carrier shall have no other liability or responsibility to any Passenger as a result of a failure to operate any flight. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL CARRIER BE LIABLE TO ANY PASSENGER FOR ANY TYPE OF SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. B. Carrier will endeavor to carry Passengers and their baggage with reasonable dispatch, but times shown in schedules or elsewhere are not guaranteed and form no part of this Contract of Carriage. Carrier may, without notice, substitute alternate carriers or aircraft and, if necessary, may alter or omit intermediate stops shown on the reservation. All schedules are subject to change without notice. Carrier is not responsible and assumes no liability for failure to make connections on its own flights or the flights of any other airline. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL CARRIER BE LIABLE TO ANY PASSENGER FOR ANY TYPE OF SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGESAirline Partners:
Aer Lingus
Aeroflot
Air China
Air India
All Nippon airways
Asiana airlines
Avianca airline
Azu airlines
British airways
Brussels Airlines
Cape air
Cathay pacific airways
China airlines
Condor airlines
EgyptAir air
El-al
Emirates
Etihad
Eva airways
Hainan Airlines
Hawaiian Airlines
Iberia
Iceland
Japan Airlines
Jet Airways
Korean Airlines
LATAM Airlines
LIAT
LOT Polish Airlines
Lufthansa
Porter Airlines
Qatar Airways
Royal Air Maroc
SATA
Seaborne
Silver Airways
Singapore Airlines
South African Airways
TAP Portugal
Thomas Cook Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Same as Airline PartnersNone
Southwest Airlines9. Service Interruptions
Refer to Section 8 for conditions applicable to international travel.
a. Failure to Operate as Scheduled
(1) Canceled Flights or Irregular Operations. In the event Carrier cancels or fails to
operate any flight according to Carrier’s published schedule, or changes the schedule
of any flight, Carrier will, at the request of a Passenger with a confirmed Ticket on
such flight, take one of the following actions:
(i) Transport the Passenger at no additional charge on Carrier’s next flight(s) on which
space is available to the Passenger’s intended destination, in accordance with
Carrier’s established reaccommodation practices; or
(ii) Refund the unused portion of the Passenger’s fare in accordance with Section 4c.
(2) Diverted Flights. In the event Carrier diverts any flight, Carrier, at its sole discretion,
will take reasonable steps to transport Passenger to his destination or to provide
reasonable accommodations.
(3) Flight Schedule Changes. Flight schedules are subject to change without notice, and
the times shown on Carrier’s published schedules, Tickets, and advertising are not
guaranteed. At times, without prior notice to Passengers, Carrier may need to
substitute other aircraft and may change, add, or omit intermediate stops. Carrier
cannot guarantee that Passengers will make connections to other flights by the
Carrier or by other airlines. In the event of flight schedule changes or service
withdrawals, Carrier will attempt to notify affected Passengers as early as possible.
(4) Limitation of Liability. Except to the extent provided in Section 9a, Carrier shall not be
liable for any failure or delay in operating any flight, with or without notice for reasons
of aviation safety or when advisable, in its sole discretion, due to Force Majeure
Events, including, without limitation, acts of God, meteorological events, such as
storms, rain, wind, fire, fog, flooding, earthquakes, haze, or volcanic eruption. It also
includes, without limitation, government action, disturbances or potentially volatile
international conditions, civil commotions, riots, embargoes, wars, or hostilities,
whether actual, threatened, or reported, strikes, work stoppage, slowdown, lockout or
any other labor related dispute involving or affecting Carrier’s service, mechanical
difficulties by entities other than Carrier, Air Traffic Control, the inability to obtain fuel,
airport gates, labor, or landing facilities for the flight in question or any fact not
reasonably foreseen, anticipated or predicted by Carrier
NoneNoneNone
Spirit Airlines8. SCHEDULE CHANGES, DELAYED FLIGHTS AND CANCELED FLIGHTS 8.1 Spirit Airlines Responsibility for Schedules and Operations Times shown in a timetable or elsewhere are not guaranteed and form no part of the terms of transportation. Spirit may, without notice, substitute alternate carriers or aircraft, and may alter or omit stopping places shown on the reservation. Schedules are subject to change without notice. Spirit is not responsible or liable for making connections (on its own flights or flights of any other carrier), or for failing to operate any flight according to schedule, or for changing the schedule of any flight. SPIRIT AIRLINES CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE 38 UPDATED AS OF JANURARY 14, 2019 8.2 Rebooking When a guest holding a confirmed reservation on a Spirit flight which is delayed because of a schedule irregularity (including but not limited to, a missed connection, flight cancellation, omission of a scheduled stop, substitution of equipment, or schedule change), Spirit may rebook the guest on Spirit's first flight on which seats are available to the guest's original destination without additional charge. Our staff will focus on rebooking as many guests as possible on alternate flights, either direct to the destination or via connections through other airports to best accommodate the guest’s needs. A change may be made to an itinerary without a charge and/or fare difference when the itinerary was affected by a cancelled flight, an eligible schedule change or a delayed flight (greater than two hours from the original departure time) provided: • The same departure and arrival airports are booked and; • The itinerary is rebooked within Spirit’s authorized date ranges (currently within 7 days of the departure date). With limited exceptions, Spirit will not reimburse guests for flights that they book on other carriers. 8.3 Amenities/Services for Guests Spirit will not assume expenses incurred as a result of a flight delay, cancellation, or schedule change. Spirit may provide limited amenities and services, which may be required by certain guests in order to maintain their safety, health and welfare. Amenities provided by Spirit are provided as a courtesy to the guest and are not to be considered an obligation of Spirit. In the case of a cancellation or misconnection, if rebooking options are available the following day, and the cancellation was due to our failure, we may offer overnight hotel accommodations for non-local guests. However, if the cancellation or misconnection is caused by severe weather, Air Traffic Control decisions or other issues outside of Spirit’s control, we cannot offer such accommodations. We will, nevertheless, make reasonable efforts to provide information enabling guests to secure accommodations on their own. No lodging will be provided to a guest on any Spirit flight which is delayed or canceled in the originating city on the guest’s reservation.NoneNoneNone
Sun Country AirlinesRule 240 - Flight Delays/Cancellations/Schedule Change (Confirmed Ticket) General The provisions of this rule apply to a passenger who has a confirmed reservation on a flight which he/she does not use for one of the reasons specified below. Schedule Irregularity When a passenger will be delayed significantly because of a schedule irregularity or Sun Country cancels the passenger’s reservation according to Rule 135 - Cancellation of Reservations: Liability Except to the extent provided in this rule, Sun Country Airlines shall not be liable for failing to operate any flight according to schedule or for changing the schedule or type of equipment used on any flight with or without notice to the passenger. Delay, Misconnection, Cancellation, or Schedule Change To the extent reasonably possible, Sun Country Airlines will provide onward transportation to passengers delayed significantly or misconnected due to schedule irregularities or cancellation of flights or service as follows: • If the significant delay or misconnection is caused by Sun Country Airlines, Sun Country will transport the passenger on its next available flight in the same class or, if unavailable, a higher class of service at no additional cost to the passenger. At Sun Country Airlines' discretion and cost, Sun Country may arrange travel for the passenger on another carrier in lieu of providing alternate transportation in the manner described above. If Sun Country Airlines is unable to provide air transportation acceptable to the passenger, Sun Country Airlines will refund the value of the unused air transportation in accordance with Rule 260 - Involuntary Refunds. • If the delay or misconnection is caused by a carrier other than Sun Country Airlines, Sun Country may transport the passenger on the next available Sun Country flight in the same class of service at no additional cost to the passenger. • If the passenger is holding a confirmed seat on a higher-class ticket and space is only available on a lower class of seating, Sun Country Airlines will refund the difference in fares pursuant to Rule 260 - Involuntary Refunds. Amenities When a fare-paying passenger holds confirmed reservations on a Sun Country Airlines flight, Sun Country Airlines may assume limited expenses incurred as a result of a mechanical delay exceeding four (4) hours for domestic flights or eight (8) hours for international flights. Sun Country Airlines will advise the passenger of the available amenities and services. Sun Country Airlines will provide special amenities and services which, in Sun Country Airlines’ judgment, are required by certain passengers such as passengers with disabilities, or sick and/or incapacitated passengers for the safety, health and welfare of such passengers. Contract of CarriageNoneNoneNone
United AirlinesRule 24 Flight Delays/Cancellations/Aircraft Changes
General
U.S.A. Origin Flights - Where the UA flights originate in the U.S.A., the provisions of this Rule apply to a Passenger who has a Ticket and a confirmed reservation on a flight that incurs a Schedule Change, Force Majeure Event or Irregular Operations.
Non-U.S.A. Origin Flights - Where the UA flight originates outside the U.S.A., the following provisions apply to a Passenger who has a Ticket and a confirmed reservation on a flight:
If local or international laws regulate a Schedule Change, Force Majeure or Irregular Operations, then the procedures in Rule 24 will not be applied.
If no local law otherwise regulates a Schedule Change, Force Majeure or Irregular Operations, then the procedures in Rule 24 will be applied.
Schedules are Subject to Change Without Notice - Times shown on tickets, timetables, published schedules or elsewhere, and aircraft type and similar details reflected on tickets or UA’s schedule are not guaranteed and form no part of this contract. UA may substitute alternate carriers or aircraft, delay or cancel flights, and alter or omit stopping places or connections shown on the ticket at any time. UA will promptly provide Passengers the best available information regarding known delays, cancellations, misconnections and diversions, but UA is not liable for any misstatements or other errors or omissions in connection with providing such information. No employee, agent or representative of UA can bind UA legally by reason of any statements relating to flight status or other information. Except to the extent provided in this Rule, UA shall not be liable for failing to operate any flight according to schedule, or for any change in flight schedule, with or without notice to the passenger.
Definitions - For the purpose of this Rule, the following terms have the meanings below:
Schedule Change – an advance change in UA’s schedule (including a change in operating carrier or itinerary) that is not a unique event such as Irregular Operations or Force Majeure Event as defined below.
Connecting Point – a point to which a Passenger holds or held confirmed space on a flight of one carrier and out of which the Passenger holds or held confirmed space on a flight of the same or another carrier. All airports through which a city is served by any carrier will be deemed to be a single Connecting Point when the receiving carrier has confirmed reservations to the Delivering Carrier.
Delivering Carrier – a carrier on whose flight a Passenger holds or held confirmed space to a Connecting Point.
Force Majeure Event – any of the following situations:
Any condition beyond UA’s control including, but not limited to, meteorological or geological conditions, acts of God, riots, terrorist activities, civil commotions, embargoes, wars, hostilities, disturbances, or unsettled international conditions, either actual, anticipated, threatened or reported, or any delay, demand, circumstances, or requirement due directly or indirectly to such condition;
Any strike, work stoppage, slowdown, lockout, or any other labor-related dispute involving or affecting UA’s services;
Any governmental regulation, demand or requirement;
Any shortage of labor, fuel, or facilities of UA or others;
Damage to UA’s Aircraft or equipment caused by another party;
Any emergency requiring immediate care or protection for a person or property; or
Any event not reasonably foreseen, anticipated or predicted by UA.
Misconnection – occurs at a Connecting Point when a Passenger holding confirmed space on an Original Receiving Carrier is unable to use such confirmed space because the Delivering Carrier was unable to deliver him/her to the Connecting Point in time to connect with the Original Receiving Carrier’s flight.
NOTE: The same rules regarding Delivering and Original Receiving Carrier responsibilities apply at the subsequent point(s) of Misconnection as would apply at the point of original Misconnection.
Original Receiving Carrier(s) – a carrier or combination of connecting carriers on whose flight(s) a Passenger originally held or holds confirmed space from a Connecting Point to a destination, next Stopover or Connecting Point.
Irregular Operations – any of the following irregularities:
Delay in scheduled departure or arrival of a carrier’s flight resulting in a Misconnection;
Flight or service cancellation, omission of a scheduled stop, or any other delay or interruption in the scheduled operation of a carrier’s flight;
Substitution of aircraft type that provides different classes of service or different seat configurations;
Schedule changes which require Rerouting of Passengers at departure time of the original flight; or
Cancellation of a reservation by UA pursuant to Rule 5.
EXCEPTION: UA shall have no obligation to honor another carrier’s ticket that does not reflect a confirmed reservation on UA, unless the issuing carrier reissues the ticket for any changes in routing. In the event such carrier is not available to do so, UA reserves the right to reroute passengers only over its own lines between the points named on the original ticket.
Schedule Change- When a Passenger’s Ticketed flight is affected because of a Schedule Change that modifies the original departure and/or arrival time by 30 minutes or more, UA will, at its election, arrange one of the following:
Provided that the dates of departure and arrival must be within 7 days of the originally scheduled dates of departure and arrival, respectively, transport the Passenger on its own flights, subject to availability, to the Destination, next Stopover point, or transfer point shown on its portion of the Ticket, without Stopover in the same class of service, at no additional cost to the Passenger;
When a Schedule Change results in the cancellation of all UA service between two cities, at UA’s sole discretion, UA may reroute Passengers over the lines of one or more carriers in an equivalent class of service;
Advise the Passenger that the value of his or her Ticket may be applied toward future travel on United within one year from the date of issue without a change or reissue fee; or
If the Passenger is not transported as provided in C) 1) or 2) above and does not choose to apply the value of his or her Ticket toward future travel as provided in C) 3) above, the Passenger will be eligible for a refund upon request. See Rule 27 A).
Force Majeure Event - In the event of a Force Majeure Event, UA without notice, may cancel, terminate, divert, postpone, or delay any flight, right of carriage or reservations (whether confirmed) and determine if any departure or landing should be made, without any liability on the part of UA. UA may re-accommodate Passengers on another available UA flight or on another carrier or combination of carriers, or via ground transportation, or may refund any unused portions of the Ticket in the form of a travel certificate.
Irregular Operations
Liability - Except to the extent provided in this Rule and the Warsaw and/or Montreal Conventions, UA shall not be liable for any Irregular Operations.
Delay, Misconnection or Cancellation
When a Passenger’s ticket is affected because of Irregular Operations caused by UA, UA will take the following measures:
Transport the Passenger on its own flights, subject to availability, to the Destination, next Stopover point, or transfer point shown on its portion of the Ticket, without Stopover in the same class of service, at no additional cost to the Passenger; or
At its sole discretion, UA may arrange for the passenger to travel on another carrier. United may also, at its sole discretion, and if acceptable to the passenger, arrange for the passenger to travel via ground transportation.
In the event a Passenger misses an onward connecting flight on which space is reserved because the Delivering Carrier did not operate its flight due to Irregular Operations or a Schedule Change, the Delivering Carrier is responsible to arrange for carriage of the Passenger or to make a refund.
If a Passenger is not transported as provided in E) 2) above, the Passenger will be eligible for a refund upon request. See Rule 27 A).
If space is only available and used on a UA flight(s) of a lower class of service than originally purchased by the passenger, UA will provide a refund of the difference in fare pursuant to Rule 27 C) 5).
Amenities for Delayed Passengers
Lodging - UA will provide at its option either one night’s lodging, or, if no lodging is provided and upon the passenger’s request only, reimbursement for one night’s lodging in the form of an electronic travel certificate that may be applied to future travel on UA up to a maximum amount determined by UA when a UA flight on which a Passenger is being transported incurs Irregular Operations and the Passenger incurs a delay that is expected to exceed four hours between the hours of 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. local time. Where lodging has been offered but not accepted by a Passenger for whatever reason, UA is not liable to reimburse the Passenger for expenses relating to alternative lodging secured independently by the Passenger.
EXCEPTION: Lodging will not be furnished:
To a Passenger whose trip is interrupted at a city which is his/her permanent domicile, origin point, or stopover point, or
When the destination city airport that is designated on the Passenger’s Ticket and the city airport that the Passenger is diverted to are both within the following city groups:
Baltimore, MD (BWI)/Washington D.C. Dulles IAD)/Washington D.C. National (DCA)
Brownsville, TX (BRO/Harlingen, TX (HRL)/McAllen, TX (MFE)
Burbank, CA (BUR)/Los Angeles, CA (LAX)/Ontario, CA (ONT)/Orange County, CA (SNA)/Long Beach, CA (LGB)
Chicago, IL O’Hare (ORD)/Chicago, IL Midway (MDW)/Milwaukee, WI (MKE)
Colorado Springs, CO (COS)/Denver, CO (DEN)
Dallas, TX Dallas-Ft. Worth International (DFW)/Dallas, TX Love Field (DAL)
Lauderdale, FL (FLL)/Miami, FL (MIA)/West Palm Beach, FL (PBI)
Houston, TX Bush Intercontinental (IAH)/Houston, TX Ellington AFB (EFD)/Houston, TX Hobby (HOU)
Oakland, CA (OAK)/San Francisco, CA (SFO)/San Jose, CA (SJC)
Newark, NJ Newark International (EWR)/New York, NY La Guardia (LGA)/New York, NY Kennedy (JFK)/White Plains, NY (HPN)
London, UK Gatwick (LGW)/London, UK Heathrow (LHR)
When such interruption is due to circumstances outside UA’s control.
Snacks and Meals - UA will provide snacks and/or food and beverage vouchers in the event of an extensive delay caused by UA. Where food and beverage vouchers have been offered but not accepted by a Passenger for whatever reason, UA is not liable to reimburse the Passenger for expenses relating to food and beverage secured independently by the Passenger.
Ground Transportation - When lodging is furnished in accordance with 1) above and ground transportation is not furnished by the hotel, UA will provide ground transportation to the place of lodging via public conveyance. Rule 17 also governs any provision of ground transportation to a place of lodging. Where ground transportation has been offered but not accepted by a Passenger for whatever reason, UA is not liable to reimburse the Passenger for expenses relating to alternative ground transportation secured by the Passenger.
The sole and exclusive remedy for a passenger who has a claim under this Rule shall be the express amenities provided in this Rule. The passenger shall have no other claims or law or equity for actual, compensatory, or punitive damages. The provision of services in addition to those specifically set forth in this Rule to all or some passengers shall not be construed as a waiver of UA’s rights or an expansion of its obligations. Neither shall any delay on the part of UA in exercising or enforcing its rights under this Rule be construed as a waiver of such rights.
Airline Partners:
Air Dolomiti
Aer Lingus
Aeromar
Adria Airways
Aegean Airlines
Air Canada
Air China
Air India
Air New Zealand
All Nippon Airways
Asiana Airlines
Austrian Airlines
Avianca
Azul
Boutique Air
Brussels Airlines
Cape Air
Copa Airlines
Croatia Airlines
Edelweiss Air
EgyptAir
Ethiopian Airlines
Eurowings
EVA Air
Hawaiian Airlines
LOT Polish Airlines
Lufthansa
Olympic Air
Scandinavian Airlines
Shenzhen Airlines
Silver Airways
Singapore Airlines
South African Airways
Swiss International Air Lines
TAP Air Portugal
Thai Airways
Turkish Airlines
Same as PartnersStar Alliance

Airline Passenger Rights Terminology

Alliance: An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level. Alliances may provide marketing branding to facilitate travelers making inter-airline codeshare connections within countries. An alliance is just a joint marketing venture, it can include code sharing but does not have to.

Codeshare: codeshare agreement, also known as a codeshare, is a business arrangement, common in the aviation industry, in which two or more airlines publish and market a flight under their own airline designator and flight number (the “airline flight code”) as part of their published timetable or schedule. Typically, a flight is operated by one airline (technically called an “administrating carrier”) while seats are sold for the flight by all cooperating airlines using their own designator and flight number. Typically, code-sharing agreements are also a part of the commercial agreements between airlines in the same airline alliances.

Interline: Interlining, also known as interline ticketing and interline booking, is a voluntary commercial agreement between individual airlines to handle passengers traveling on itineraries that require multiple flights on multiple airlines. Such contracts allow passengers to change from one flight on one airline to another flight on another airline without having to gather their bags or check-in again.

I spent almost eight hours trying to find a collective list of airlines interline agreements. Oddly, not available anywhere. Then there is The Industry Affairs Committee (IAC):

The IATA Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreements (MITA) is an agreement whereby passengers and cargo use a standard traffic document (i.e. passenger ticket or air waybill) to travel on various modes of transport involved in a routing in order to reach a destination.

One Multilateral Agreement concluded with another airline through IATA results in joining a partnership of the growing network of over 350 participating worldwide domestic and international airlines.

Confusing? Yep…… I will save researching the Interline and IAC/MITA information for a later date!

Airline Alliances

There are three major alliances: Oneworld, Sky Team and Star Alliance. Airlines must pay to be members and must agree to deliver certain benefits to passengers on a reciprocal basis. Some codeshare but it’s not a requirement.

For consumers, the main benefits are:

  • Through ticketing/baggage
  • Reciprocal booking (although not guaranteed)
  • Ability to earn and redeem points within the network
  • Reciprocal benefits based on status, aka entry to a lounge if you are eligible

Star Alliance:

  
Oneworld:

 

SkyTeam

European Airline Passenger Rights

In Europe, the European Union states these key facts relative to Airline Passenger Rights:

EU air passenger rights apply:

  1. If your flight is within the EU and is operated either by an EU or a non-EU airline
  2. If your flight arrives in the EU from outside the EU and is operated by an EU airline
  3. If your flight departs from the EU to a non-EU country operated by an EU or a non-EU airline
  4. If you have not already received benefits (compensation, re-routing, assistance from the airline) for flight-related problems for this journey under the relevant law of a non-EU country

Regulation 261/2004 applies to all flights operated by any airline from any EU airport and flights to an EU airport operated by any EU airline:

‘If your flight is canceled you have the right to reimbursement, re-routing or return, as well as the right to assistance and a right to compensation. Compensation is due if you were informed less than 14 days prior to the scheduled departure date. The airline has the obligation to prove when you were personally informed that the flight was canceled’

Financial compensation is due if delayed by three hours or more of if you get a refund, ranging from €250 to €600 depending on flight length. Here is the link to the EU Complaint Form.

Third-party Tickets and Airline Passenger Rights

If you purchased your ticket through a third party, oh boy! This one is tricky because the booking party (Expedia, Hotwire, Kayak, etc.) will state that you need to deal directly with the airline. The airline will refer you back to the third party. Let the games begin!  It’s close to impossible to get prompt resolution. I have succeeded but never at the airport, and it took a lot of work to get a third party to cough up. And, it does nothing for being stranded.  It’s a lose-lose situation. I’ve personally experienced this several times over the years; now I book flights directly with the airline because of this. My advice here is book direct with the airline.

Other Continent Airline Passenger Rights

If it’s not an EU or United States airline, you will need to research your rights. Start with Google:

  • Which country does the airline operate out of?
  • Does the government govern aviation in any way?
  • What if any consumer rights exist in the country?
  • Reviewing the airlines’ information, the equivalent of the Contract of Contract

Closing Thoughts

Dealing with flight cancellations can be stressful. It can ruin a vacation. Save this article for when you are stuck at the airport and need a quick, easy reference for what to do!

Looking for more Travel Hacks? Start here:

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